juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) is known allelochemical, but its molecular mode of action is not well understood. We found that juglone induced reactive oxygen species production and calcium accumulation. To gain more insight into these cellular responses, we performed large-scale analysis of the rice transcriptome during juglone stress. Exposure to juglone triggered changes in transcript levels of genes related to cell growth, cell wall formation, chemical detoxification, abiotic stress response and epigenesis. The most predominant transcription-factor families were AP2/ERF, HSF, NAC, C2H2, WRKY, MYB and GRAS. Gene expression profiling of juglone-treated rice roots revealed upregulated signaling and biosynthesis of abscisic acid and jasmonic acid and inactivation of gibberellic acid. In addition, juglone upregulated the expression of two calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), 6 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) genes and 1 MAPK gene and markedly increased the activities of a CDPK-like kinase and MAPKs. Further characterization of these juglone-responsive genes may be helpful for better understanding the mechanisms of allelochemical tolerance in plants.